Seroprevalences of multi-pathogen and description of farm movement in pigs in two provinces in Vietnam
Background In Vietnam, lack of animal health information is considered a major challenge for pig production. The main objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalences of five pathogens [porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and leptospirosis] and to better characterize the farm movements through a survey. Results A total of 600 samples were collected from 120 farms from Bac Giang and Nghe An. Among unvaccinated herds, the highest seroprevalence was found for JE with 73.81% (95% CI: 68.39–78.74) in Bac Giang and 53.51% (95% CI 47.68–59.27) in Nghe An. Seroprevalences for PCV2 and M.hyo were 49.43% (95% CI: 45.06–53.80) and 46.06% (95% CI: 41.48–50.69) among unvaccinated animals. Accumulative co-infections for JE (86.25%) showed the highest level followed by M. hyo (66.25%) and PCV2 (62.50%). Three co-infections with JE had the highest positive rate (28.75%) followed by four co-infections (25.0%). Medium farms had relatively higher herd prevalences for all pathogens, except from leptospirosis. Overall, farmers exported/imported their pigs at the most 1–2 times every 6 months. Some respondents (5% for exportation and 20% for importation) had moved pigs more than 6 times over the last 6 months. Conclusions Our study provided another pool of evidence that showed that PCV2, PRRS and H. hyo are endemic in pigs in Vietnam. Given the economic impacts of these pathogens elsewhere, the findings confirm the need for studies to evaluate the association between antibody response and clinical relevance as well as to assess the economic impact of co-infections at farm level. We also found that high seroprevalences of JE and leptospirosis were detected in pigs. From a pubic health point of view, it is crucial to raise public awareness especially for high risk occupations (mainly pig farm workers).